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Talk to

Midlothian Camera Club

February 10, 2009

 

Thank you.

Tonight:   (A)  'Exposure'

                 (B)  'The History of Photography'

First ...

 

Exposure

Summary of the Talk

Please keep scrolling down to see large images and some text.

1

Under-exposure and Over-exposure

Photograph of Lamb's House  -  Correct Exposure     Photograph of Lamb's House  -  2 stops overexposed     Photograph of Lamb's House  -  2 stops underexposed

Photograph of Lamb's House  -  Correct Exposure  -  Levels Chart     Photograph of Lamb's House  -  2 stops overexposed  -  Levels chart     Photograph of Lamb's House  -  2 stops underexposed

North British Distillery, Gorgie, Edinburgh  -  1996

2

History

Enlargement of a A Stereo View by C Bierstadt of Princes Street looking east from the Scott Monument         A carte de visite by James Henderson whose photographic studio was at 68 Princes Street from 1856 until 1867     The back of a carte de visite by James Henderson whose photographic studio was at 68 Princes Street from 1856 until 1867

 Cameras from the 1890s  -  The Regular Kodet         Lizars Advert  -  May 1910

3

ISO - Time - Aperture

Packet for Velvia film     The inside of a packet for Velvia film

4

ISO

5

Time

London Underground  -  'Mind the Gap'  -  Bank Station      Bus at Wst Harbour Road  -  1 eighth second exposure     Photograph of bus at Museum  -  panned for one sixth second

Red Arrows  -  Leuchars Air Show  -  September 1990     Red Arrows  -  Leuchars Air Show  -  September 1990      Photograph by Peter Stubbs  -  July 2001  -  Iceland Waterfall  

6

Aperture

Glen Ogle in Winter     Glen Ogle in Autumn     Photograph of the road to Glencoe  -  An example of differential focus

Piper in the Scottish Highlands  -  1         Piper in the Scottish Highlands  -  2             Photograph of a Pentax Camera  -  to demonstrae how 'f stops' are calculated

Lens for a Pentax lens  -  open to an aperture of about f6     Photograph of a Pentax camera and a pinhole camera - for talk on Exposure to Midlothian Camera Club     Zoom in to the pinhole on a pinhole camera

7

Can you trust the Camera?

Dean Gallery in the snow  -  Exposure as set by the camera -  too dark      Dean Gallery in the snow  -  Exposure as set by the camera + 1 stop -  still too dark      Dean Gallery in the snow  -  Exposure as set by the camera + 2 stops -  exposure is reasonable

Dean Gallery in the snow  -  Exposure as set by the camera -  too dark  -  levels chart     Dean Gallery in the snow  -  Exposure as set by the camera + 1 stop -  still too dark  -  Levels chart     Dean Gallery in the snow  -  Exposure as set by the camera + 2 stops -  exposure is reasonable  -  Levels chart

8

How to set the Camera

9

A few Photos

0_around_edinburgh_-_calton_hill_beltane_08_033715.htm#picture         Beltane Fire Festival, Calton Hill  -  April 30, 2006

The Forth Rail Bridge  -  1        The Forth Rail Bridge  -  Sunrise 3

Edinburgh at Work  - Stevenson & Cheyne, workbench, 1992     Edinburgh at Work  - Stevenson & Cheyne, workbench, 1992     Edinburgh at Work  - Stevenson & Cheyne, workbench, 1992

Engraving in 'Modern Athens'  -  St Stephen's Church, Stockbridge         St Stephen's Church and St Vincent Bar  -  Photograph taken with a pinhole camera  -  29 April 2007 

The Royal Mile  -  360 degree panoramic view from the junction with Bank Street and George IV Bridge

Panorama from in front of Ocean Terminal, Leith Docks

10

Depth of Field explanation

Chart demonstrating the optics of a Pinhole Camera         Chart demonstrating the optics of a lens set to f2.8

Chart demonstrating the optics of a lens set to f2.8        Chart demonstrating the optics of a lens set to f16

Please ask questions - now or later

 0

 

1.

Under-exposure and Over-exposure

Photo 1

This photo has been exposed correctly.

Photograph of Lamb's House  -  Correct Exposure

  Copyright: Peter Stubbs   peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk                                                                                                                                                                                       Photograph taken November 1, 2005

Photo 1

Levels chart for the correctly exposed photo

Photograph of Lamb's House  -  Correct Exposure  -  Levels Chart

  Copyright: Peter Stubbs  -   please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

 

Photo 2

This photo is too light.            It has been over-exposed

Photograph of Lamb's House  -  2 stops overexposed

  Copyright: Peter Stubbs   peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk                                                                                                                                                                                       Photograph taken November 1, 2005

Photo 2

Levels chart for the over-exposed photo

Photograph of Lamb's House  -  2 stops overexposed  -  Levels chart

  Copyright: Peter Stubbs  -   please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Photo 3

This photo is too dark.            It has been under-exposed

Photograph of Lamb's House  -  2 stops underexposed

  Copyright: Peter Stubbs   peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk                                                                                                                                                                                       Photograph taken November 1, 2005

Photo 3

Levels chart for the under-exposed photo

Photograph of Lamb's House  -  2 stops underexposed

  Copyright: Peter Stubbs  -   please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Photo 4

This photo is light.            But is correctly exposed

North British Distillery, Gorgie, Edinburgh  -  1996

  Peter Stubbs  www.edinphoto.org.uk                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Photo taken February 7, 1996

 

Correcting Over- / Under-exposure

  • It is often possible to correct over-exposure/ under-exposure in Photoshop, but better to get it right in the camera.

  • Shooting in RAW gives more scope for correcting than JPG

  • Colour slides - must be exposed correctly

  • High contrast scenes  -  correction is not so easy

  • Try to get it right first time  -  less work, better results

 1

 

2.

History

The theory remains the same.

Equipment and materials continue to change.

Now, more latitude in materials and more automation.

Mid-1850s

Exposures were for several minutes.

Photography of moving subjects was not possible.

Enlargement of a A Stereo View by C Bierstadt of Princes Street looking east from the Scott Monument

  Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

Head-stands were used in studios to keep subjects still.

Not many photos of people smiling!

Cartes de Visite

A carte de visite by James Henderson whose photographic studio was at 68 Princes Street from 1856 until 1867      The back of a carte de visite by James Henderson whose photographic studio was at 68 Princes Street from 1856 until 1867

   author of www.cartedevisite.co.uk                               author of www.cartedevisite.co.uk

Not possible to photograph moving subjects.

Photography and printing in winter difficult - too dull.

1890s

New films allowed exposures of a fraction of a second.

Hand-held cameras became popular.

More amateurs took up photography.

Eastman Co  -   Regular Kodet camera - 1890s

  Reproduced by courtesy of Edinburgh Photographic Society

Lizars' Advert  -  1910

Lizars Advert  -  May 1910

  Reproduced by courtesy of Edinburgh Photographic Society

Mid-1900s

  • Long exposures still needed for colour film.

  • Cameras began to have built in exposure meters.

Now

  • Fully automatic cameras - exposure is less of a problem.

  • Digital Cameras - more scope for experimenting.

  • Digital Cameras - more scope for correcting.

  • 2

     

    3.

    ISO  -  Time  -  Aperture

    Film Packet

    Packet for Velvia film

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

    Look Inside

    The inside of a packet for Velvia film

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

    Examples

    SUNNY DAY:         Perhaps     1/250 sec,    f8,        100 ISO

    DULL WEATHER:  What to change?

    ASSUME:   '3 stops duller

    i.e. only 1/8 of light

    WHAT CHANGE is needed?

    EITHER

    1.  longer time       e.g.  1/30 sec           -  camera shake?

          OR

    2.  wider aperture          e.g.  f2.8           -  depth of field?

          OR

    3.  higher ISO               e.g.  800 ISO          -  grain / noise?

          OR

    4.  some combination of the above changes.

    INDOORS:   

    long exposure?  -  Perhaps  1/2 sec,   f4,   400 ISO 

    Use tripod or other support

    Use Flash?        Try it 'off camera'

     

     3

     

    4.

    ISO

    Film and Digital

    Material Speeds:  e.g. 100 ISO, 200 ISO, 400 ISO, 800 ISO, 1600 ISO

    If you increase the ISO, you can use a shorter speed.

    A photo needing 1/2 sec at 100 ISO 
                      needs 1/4 sec at 200
    ISO
                            or 1/8 sec at 400
    ISO
                           or 1/15 sec at 800
    ISO
                           or 1/30 sec at 1600
    ISO

    Higher ISO

    GOOD
                          -  to avoid camera shake
                          -  to capture a fast-moving subject

    BAD
                          -  more grain (film)
                          -  more noise (digital)

    Experiment, and see how the quality varies for different  ISO settings

    I usually leave my camera set to 100 ISO.
    I'd probably not notice the difference if I left it set to 200
    ISO.

    4

     

    5.

    Time

    How Long?

    Sport may need short shutter speed to capture the action.  e.g. 1/1000 sec

    Shutter speed for moving people and vehicles depends on:

    -  the speed of the movement.

    -  the distance from the camera.

    -  whether the subject is moving towards the camera or across the frame.

    -  the effect you want to create.  e.g. Do you really want to freeze the action?

    Fisheye Lens    1/3 sec   f3.5

    'Mind the Gap'

     London Underground  -  'Mind the Gap'  -  Bank Station

      Peter Stubbs  -   please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk                                                                                                                                                                                     Photograph taken January 12, 1995

    Camera held still for 1/8 second  f6.7

    Bus at West Harbour Road  -  1 eighth second exposure

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

    Camera panned for 1/6 second  f22

    Photograph of bus at Museum  -  panned for one sixth second

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

    Camera panned for 1/125 sec    f5.6          70-210mm lens @210mm

    Red Arrows  -  Leuchars Air Show  -  September 1990

    Copyright: Peter Stubbs  -   please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk                                                                                                                                                                  Photograph taken September 22, 1990

    Camera still    1/250 sec    f4          70-210mm lens @210mm

     

    Red Arrows  -  Leuchars Air Show  -  September 1990

    Copyright: Peter Stubbs  -   please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk                                                                                                                                                                   Photograph taken September 22, 1990

    Waterfalls, fountains, and other moving water:

    -  Short shutter speeds capture all the droplets and spray, sharply.  e.g. 1/1000 sec
    This can look good when the scene is back-lit

    -  Long shutter speeds turn the water 'milky' e.g. 1/30 to several seconds
    Moving water contrasts with surroundings.
    Whether you  like the result or not is personal preference.

    Waterfall in Iceland

    Photograph by Peter Stubbs  -  July 2001  -  Iceland Waterfall

      peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk     -    Photograph taken July 2001

     

    5

     

    6.

    Aperture

    Depth of Field

    A small aperture, like f16, keeps most or all of a photo in focus.

    Here are two views of Glen Ogle with the fence posts and the viaduct both in focus.

    Winter

    Glen Ogle in Winter

      Copyright: Peter Stubbs  -   please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

    Autumn

    Glen Ogle in Autumn

      Copyright: Peter Stubbs  -   please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

     

    A large large aperture, like f2.8, has a shallower depth of field, so keeps only the chosen area in focus.

    Here are three views on the road to Glencoe, with more selective focus.

     f2.8  -  focus on the windscreen

    Photograph of the road to Glencoe  -  An example of differential focus

      Copyright: Peter Stubbs  -   please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

     f2.8  -  focus on the piper

    Piper in the Scottish Highlands  -  1

      Copyright: Peter Stubbs  -   please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

     f2.8  -  focus on the flowers

    Piper in the Scottish Highlands  -  2

      Copyright: Peter Stubbs  -   please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

     

    Relationship between Aperture and Shutter Speed

    SMALLER 'f' number  (e.g. f2)

    = LARGER aperture

    = MORE LIGHT

    so needs SHORTER exposure

    All these give the same result:

    Examples:      f2      1/1000 sec

                           f2.8         1/500 sec

                           f4        1/250 sec

                           f5.6          1/125 sec

                           f8        1/60 sec

                           f11           1/30 sec

                           f16      1/15 sec

                             f22          1/8 sec

     

    Why is the in-between value f5.6, not f6?

    f8 is a measure of the diameter of the hole in the lens that lets in the light.

    f4 is double the diameter of f8, so lets in 4x as much light as f8.

    f5.6 is 1.414 ( = root 2 ) x the diameter of f8, so lets in 2x as much light as f8.

    Explanation:  f2                         2 x 2               = 4

                           f2.8                              2.8 x 2.8         = 8

                           f4                        4 x 4              = 16

                           f5.6                               5.65 x 5.65   = 32

                           f8                        8 x 8             = 64

                           f11                               11.3 x 11.3  = 128

                           f16                     16 x 16         = 256

                             f22                              22.6 x 22.6   = 512

    The  intermediate values above have been rounded.  e.g.  16 x 1.414  =  22.624, but this is described as f22.

    What is f2 and f4?

    - f4   The focal length of the lens is 2 x the aperture.     See red text on photo below.

    - f4   The focal length of the lens is 4 x the aperture.     See blue text on photo below.

    Photograph of a Pentax Camera  -  to demonstrae how 'f stops' are calculated

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

    Standard lens: 50mm = 2"

    -  Standard 2" lens with 1" aperture      =   f2

    -  Standard 2" lens with 1/2" aperture   =   f4

    The photo below shows how the size of the hole changes when the aperture is changed.

    Here, the diameter of the aperture has reduced to about 1/3 inch ( or 1/6 of focal length, so = f6)

    Lens for a Pentax lens  -  open to an aperture of about f6

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

    Telephoto lens: 500mm = 20"

    -  Telephoto 20" lens with 10" aperture  =   f2.    Much too bulky / heavy / expensive

    -  Telephoto 20" lens with 5" aperture    =   f4.    Still bulky / heavy / expensive

     

    My Pinhole Camera

    designed to hold 16 in x 12 in sheets of photographic paper, not film.

    Photograph of a Pentax camera and a pinhole camera - for talk on Exposure to Midlothian Camera Club

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

    Zoom-in to look at the Pinhole

    Zoom in to the pinhole on a pinhole camera

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

     

    6

     

      

    7.

    Can you Trust the Camera?

    Often,  YES  ...   BUT not always.

    1.  The camera assumes that a picture tone is mid-grey

    -  Mid-grey is often a reasonable assumption - BUT

    LIGHT SUBJECTS

    -  A snow scene or wedding dress at mid-grey looks wrong

    -  Try 1 or 2 stops more exposure to make it look LIGHTER

    -  1 stop more = twice as much exposure.  e.g at f8:   1/500 sec instead of 1/1000 sec.

    Photo 1:      What the camera saw:      1/500*,  f5.6

    Dean Gallery in the snow  -  Exposure as set by the camera -  too dark

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

    Photo 2:      What the camera saw + 1 stop:      1/250,  f5.6

    Dean Gallery in the snow  -  Exposure as set by the camera + 1 stop -  still too dark

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

    Photo 3:      What the camera saw + 2 stops:      1/125,  f5.6

    Dean Gallery in the snow  -  Exposure as set by the camera + 2 stops -  exposure is reasonable

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

     

    Levels for Photos 1, 2, 3

    1/500*, f5.6

    Dean Gallery in the snow  -  Exposure as set by the camera -  too dark  -  levels chart               

    1/250, f5.6

    Dean Gallery in the snow  -  Exposure as set by the camera + 1 stop -  still too dark  -  Levels chart

    1/125, f5.6

    Dean Gallery in the snow  -  Exposure as set by the camera + 2 stops -  exposure is reasonable  -  Levels chart

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

    *  This is the reading I expected from the camera.  But, on looking at the data for the photo, I see that it selected 1/750, f5.6.  Perhaps I was pointing the camera down a little too far when I took the meter reading.

    DARK SUBJECTS

    -  Dark subjects can also confuse the camera

       A photo in a coal cellar, or a shop front painted black, should not be grey.

    -  Try 1 or 2 stops less exposure to make it look DARKER.

    2.  Can the camera cope with the range of brightness?

    -  Squint at a scene to see the possible outcome.

    -  Expose for the highlights.    Don't lose detail in lightest parts.

    -  Consider a graduated neutral density filter for the sky

    -  On bright days, use 'fill in flash' outdoors

    -  For portraits, consider using a reflector

    -  If in doubt, bracket  e.g at f8:   1/1000,  1/5001/250 sec.

    -  Then use the best

        OR

    -  combine more than one (possibly with HDR software)

    3.  Look at the levels chart on the back of the camera

      -  Try exposure compensation and see how the chart changes.

    NOTE:  Despite all the comments above, I find that it can be a good idea to ALSO take a photo at the exposure recommended by the camera.  This may, in fact, turn out to be the best exposure, and with digital cameras there's no additional cost involved in taking an extra exposure.

    7

     

    8.

    How to Set the Camera

    Full Auto

    Av  -  Aperture priority

    Tv -  Shutter Priority

    Manual

    Full Auto

    -  Usually reliable.

    -  If the occasion is important and may difficult to 'go back and do it again  e.g. a wedding, it may be a good idea to take a range of photos in 'full auto' mode, no matter what other photos are being taken.

    Aperture Priority

    -  Useful to keep control over the depth of field.
    e.g. to keep everything in focus in a landscape (or not).

    -  Maybe keep foreground and background in focus on a landscape.
    e.g. use f.16 or f22.

    -  Maybe isolate one person in a crowd, as for some press photos.
    e.g. use  f.2.8 or f4.

    -  Check on the shutter speed required.  Be prepared to use a tripod.

    -  Historic rule was don't hand-hold for > 1/focal length
    e.g. Any speed longer than 1/50 sec with a 50mm lens needs a tripod

    -  Now with image stabiliser lens it is possible to hand-hold for longer
    perhaps between 2x and 4x as long.

    -  Despite the above rule, it is surprising how much a tripod can help. 

     

    Shutter Priority

    -  Useful where you want to use a particular time and depth of field is less critical.

    -  for waterfalls or flowing water

    -  for fast action in sport

    -  for panning subjects

     

    Manual

    -  This can prevent the camera from doing what it wants to do, if you think it's going to get things wrong. e.g.

    -  For copying photos, find the exposure using a 'grey card' then keep to that exposure for all photos, providing the lighting conditions do not change. 

    This should give a true copy of the photos, rather than one where the lighter and darker pictures have been adjusted by the camera.

    -  For panoramas, choose a day with no wide variations of light across the panorama.  Find the exposure needed for an average part or important part of the scene.  Set the camera to manual on that exposure for all settings.

    -  For scenes that are fairly monochrome in a dark of light colour, e.g. snow or dark or light building, use a grey card, lit and angled in the same way as the subject, then use manual  -  OR for digital photography (with no extra film or processing to pay for) it may be easier to just bracket the photo and select the best later.

     

    8

     

    9.

    A Few Photos

    (a)

    Direct and Reflected Light

    (i)   Flash lights the subject DIRECTLY

    -  A brighter flash is needed if the subject is further away

    -  Move 2x as far away:  the flash has to be 4x as bright.

    -  Move 3x as far away:  the flash has to be 9x as bright.

    -  Automatic flash can cope with this (within limits)

    - Automatic flash at an outdoor event at night is only likely to illuminate the head of the person in front, not the performers on stage in the distance.   (bad)

    -  Fill in flash, used for an outdoor portrait in bright light at daytime will fill in the dark shadows in the face, but will leave the background unchanged.    (good)

    1.5 seconds f4.5

    Beltane Festival  -  Movement from the camera and the dancers

    0_around_edinburgh_-_calton_hill_beltane_08_033715.htm#picture

      peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Photograph taken:  May 1, 2008 at 1am

    1/30 sec f5.6

    400 ISO but a lot of noise in the background

    Beltane Festival  -  Flash on aperture priority freezes the action in the foreground

    Beltane Fire Festival, Calton Hill  -  April 30, 2006

      peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk                                                                                                                                                                                             Photograph taken:   April 30, 2006;  10.21pm

    (ii)  Sun and Floodlighting lights the subject INDIRECTLY

    -  Distance to the subject in a landscape does not affect the brightness.

    -  Brightness depends on the colour and texture of different parts of the scene and whether they are in the sun or the shade.

    -  Exposure for the moon is same as is needed for a fine day on earth.

    -  Move further from a floodlit building and it still needs the same exposure.

    -  So you can move closer to take exposure reading, then move back for photo.

                    

    (b)

    Dusk and Dawn

    -  Colour in the sky may last for only a few minutes

    -  Photograph before the sky gets too dark / light

    Forth Bridges  -  Sunset

    The Forth Rail Bridge  -  1

     Copyright: Peter Stubbs  -   please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk                                                                                                                                This photograph  has been used on a CD cover.

    Forth Bridges  -  Sunrise

    The Forth Rail Bridge  -  Sunrise 3

      Copyright: Peter Stubbs  -   please contact  peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk                                                                                                                                                                         Photo taken:  August 14, 1994

     

    (c)

    Mixed Lighting

    Tungsten + fluorescent + daylight:   - a challenge!

    Stevenson & Cheyne Engineering Works

     Edinburgh at Work  - Stevenson & Cheyne, workbench, 1992

      Peter Stubbs.    Please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk                                                   Photograph taken February 12, 1992

     One solution

    Convert to Sepia and keep some colour

     Edinburgh at Work  - Stevenson & Cheyne, workbench, 1992

      Peter Stubbs.    Please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk                                                   Photograph taken February 12, 1992

     More on the same theme

    Convert to Sepia and keep some colour

     Edinburgh at Work  - Stevenson & Cheyne, workbench, 1992

        Please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk                                                                                             Photograph taken February 18, 1993

     

    (d)

    Pinhole Photography

    St Stephen's Church

    Near Edinburgh Photographic Society

    Old engraving   -   Published 1829

    Engraving in 'Modern Athens'  -  St Stephen's Church, Stockbridge

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

    Photo taken with the pinhole camera

    Weather bright:           Exposure  25 minutes

    St Stephen's Church and St Vincent Bar  -  Photograph taken with a pinhole camera  -  29 April 2007

      Copyright: Peter Stubbs  -   please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk                                                                                                                                                     Photograph taken 10.40am on April 29, 2007

    Distortions

    The distortions in this photo are not because the photo was taken with a pinhole camera.

    They are due to the cylindrical shape of the photographic paper when it is in the camera.

    (e)

    Panoramas

    Royal Mile

    The Royal Mile  -  360 degree panoramic view from the junction with Bank Street and George IV Bridge

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

    Leith

    Panorama from in front of Ocean Terminal, Leith Docks

     Copyright: Peter Stubbs  - peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk                                                                                                                                                                                     Photograph taken on August 24, 2006

     

    9

     

    10.

    Depth of Field

    Pinhole Camera

    Everything is in focus

    Chart demonstrating the optics of a Pinhole Camera

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

    f 2.8

    Piper in focus

    Chart demonstrating the optics of a lens set to f2.8

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

    f 2.8

    Foreground flowers in focus

    Chart demonstrating the optics of a lens set to f2.8

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

    f 16

    Everything just about in focus

    Chart demonstrating the optics of a lens set to f16

      Copyright: For permission to reproduce, please contact peter.stubbs@edinphoto.org.uk

     

     

    Talk to Midlothian Camera Club   -    PART 2:  History of Photography

     

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    Links to Other Pages

    EdinPhoto - Home Page  Please send me an e-mail ...  with your questions, comments, suggestions or news.   At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.     At any time, you can search for a word  -  perhaps a photographer's name or a photographic topic.  The search will produce a list of pages on the EdinPhoto web site where this word appears.  

    Photographs and Other Images  -  These include portraits of photographers  -  photographic outings -  Princes Street views  -  Newhaven Fishwives  -  etc.  Early Photography in Edinburgh  -  Talbot, Brewster, Hill & Adamson, Early Professional Photographers in Princes Street, etc.  Professional Photographers in Edinburgh  -  1840 to 1940  -  Their names, dates of business and studio addresses.  The Photographic Society of Scotland  -  1856 to 1873  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, etc.  The History of Edinburgh Photographic Society  -  1861 to date  -  Lectures, Exhibitions, Outings, Poems, etc.  EPS Publications - EPS Handwritten Records  -  Photographic Journals  -  Trade Directories  -  Books  -  etc.  Thanks to all who have encouraged and supported me in creating the EdinPhoto web site  -  including descendants of photographers  -  researchers  -  providers of photographs and other material  Background notes on the research thal led up to the creation of this site  -   together with lists of new material added to the site since its launch.  Brief comments on how this site might be used  -  Just browsing?  -  Seeking specific information?  Please add your questions, suggestions or other comments to the Guest Book.  Links to other web sites  -  Photographic Societies  -  Photographic History  -  Family History  -  etc.  Click here to find the link to the Edinburgh Photogrpahic Society web site.

     

    A selection of my photographs, many from Edinburgh throughout the year.   Also photos from Scotland, London, Iceland, Italy, Hong Kong and elsewhere     Many old maps of Edinburgh (Old Town, New Town, while City), Leith and Newhaven.  Includes several old transport maps and a comparison of old maps with recent aerial photos.   Old engravings, mailly of Edinburgh scenes.  Some from the 1820s, some from the 1890s,  some others - includes many hand-coloured examples from the 1820s.   News from Edinburgh today  -  Events, Collections, Buildings and Gardens, Transport   This site includes     1. Post card portraits taken in studios in Edinburgh:    2. Post card views either takeen/published by Ediburgh photographers or views of Edinburgh, or both.y Edinburgh    Views of Edinburgh, grouped into three sections:     1. Street views:    2. Buildings:    3. Around Edinburgh   Views of transport around Edinburgh  -  Horse drawn trams and buses, cable cars, electric trams, buses and a few railway photos.  Also several maps of Edinburgh's bus and tram routes.   Links to pages with Photos of Groups   Frequently Asked Questions

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